Dr. D'Adamo's Newsletter
|Chutes and Ladders
Peter D'Adamo, ND, MIfHI
|“The major problem, I think, is chromatin… you can inherit something beyond the DNA sequence. That’s where the real excitement of genetics is now”
Chutes and Ladders is a popular children’s game
played on a board grid of numbered squares; on certain squares on the grid
are drawn a number of “ladders” and a number of “chutes” also connecting the
squares together. Normally a player rolls a die and moves that number of squares.
However, landing on the top of a chute or bottom of a ladder results in the
player moving his or her piece upwards or downwards on the grid.
The game is based on the ancient game of Snakes and Ladders, actually a game of morality, which is believed to date back to ancient India, with bases of the ladders being located on squares representing various types of good and the more numerous snakes signaling evil. The game appealed to 18th century Victorians, who brought the game back to England, substituting the more Victorian values of penitence, thrift and industry for the ladders and indolence, indulgence and disobedience for the chutes. However, they at least equalized the number of ladders and snakes.
“Any landscape is a condition of the spirit.” — Henri Frédéric Amiel
Conrad Waddington (1905-1975) first coined the term “epigenetics” in 1968. Originally an embryologist, he had studied with Thomas Hunt Morgan, also an embryologist. Waddington had increasingly come to believe that the answers to his questions concerning development lay in genetics. In 1915 Morgan first demonstrated that genes are carried on chromosomes and are the mechanical basis of heredity. Waddington saw the term as a way to describe the integration of epigenesis (the series of occurrences in development with genetics). With it, Waddington helped create the field of developmental genetics.
Waddington described it as “the branch of biology which studies the causal interactions between genes and their products, which bring the phenotype into being.” (2) Epigenetics, in a broad sense, is a bridge between genotype and phenotype—a phenomenon that changes the outcome of a locus or chromosome without changing the underlying DNA sequence. For example, even though the vast majority of cells in a multicellular organism share an identical genotype, organ and tissue development generates a diversity of cell types with disparate, yet stable, profiles of gene expression and distinct cellular functions.
Epigenetics is the study of reversible heritable changes in gene function that occur without a change in the sequence of nuclear DNA. It is also the study of the processes involved in the unfolding development of an organism. In both cases, the object of study includes how gene regulatory information that is not expressed in DNA sequences is transmitted from one generation to the next – that is “in addition to” the genetic information encoded in the DNA. In its simplest manifestation, epigenetics is defined as any genetic mechanism that results in phenotypic variation without altering the base-pair nucleotide sequence of the genes. (3)
Waddington used an important visual metaphor to describe the development of an individual organism –or part of an organism, such as an organ, tissue or even a specific cell. He likened it to a ball rolling down an undulating, dissected landscape predetermined by the genetic architecture that lay underneath. This he called an epigenetic landscape. This epigenetic landscape is a metaphor for how gene regulation modulates development. One is asked to imagine a number of marbles rolling down a hill towards a wall. The marbles will compete for the grooves on the slope, and come to rest at the lowest points. These points represent the eventual cell fates, that is, tissue types.
|Epigenetic landscape I. “The path followed by the ball, as it rolls towards the spectator, corresponds to the developmental history of a particular part of the egg.” (Waddington CW. The Strategy of the Genes. London, Allen and Unwin (1957)
A key theme in this work is that the final form of an organism does not develop entirely and exclusively from a blueprint specified in the genetic program, but rather is a result of the way the genes interact with the environment throughout the developmental process. (4-5)
Waddington suggested that these concurrent interacting influences of genotype
and environment could best be conceptualized as an epigenetic landscape, a domain
of multiple hills and valleys; and that the growth and development of the organism
could be likened to a marble making its way downhill. “Well-worn” or “beaten” pathways along which the course of development of an organism normally unfolds
were termed chreodes. In the epigenetic landscape, chreodes are the developmental
trajectories in the landscape and the epigenetic landscape itself represents
the probability distribution of the developmental outcomes. In essence, the balls
are much more likely to wind up at the base of a deeper valley, than stuck on
some shelf or side valley. As the ball rolls down the landscape, it can be buffered
by external or internal influences and perturbations; but it tends to return
to the base valley, the chreode. (6,7)
Epigenetic landscape II. “The complex system of interactions underlying the epigenetic landscape. The pegs in the ground represent genes, the strings leading from the chemical tendencies that the genes produce. The modeling of the epigenetic landscape, which slopes down from above one’s head towards the distance, is controlled by the pull of these numerous guy-ropes which are ultimately anchored to the genes.” (Waddington
CW. The Strategy of the Genes. London, Allen and Unwin (1957)
The resistance of phenotypic variations to environmental or genetic
influences is called canalization. Another way of thinking about
it: Canalization is a measure of the ability of a population to
produce the same phenotype regardless of variability of its environment
or genotype. In Waddington’s epigenetic landscape a canalized trait would be a valley enclosed by high ridges, safely guiding the phenotype to its “fate.” This phenotypic buffering of the developmental systems can produce a “wild-type” phenotype
(or what might more accurately be called a phenotypic mean) in the
face of various mutations or environmental insults.
In many ways, canalization is the opposite of phenotype plasticity, since it works to insure that phenotypic variation is limited to the degrees that the same phenotype is produced regardless of genotypic or environmental changes. Traits that are highly canalized show little capacity for variation.
Evolution in the epigenetic landscape can occur from:
Some authors (8) distinguish between a “genetic” and an “environmental” form of canalization. Genetic canalization refers to distinct genotypes producing the same phenotype, while environmental canalization refers to the same genotype producing the same phenotype in spite of environmental variation.
- Variation in developmental systems: Certain systems might be more or less sensitive to the effects of canalization than others
- A shifting in phenotypic mean: The marble’s outcome shifts from its original valley to one with a deeper cut and steeper walls
- A gradual decrease in variance: Due to natural selection acting on some sort
of environmental condition certain alternate traits are winnowed out, leaving
the remaining marbles to wear a continuous path, deepening a previously shallower
valley into a deeper one.
- Watson JD. A conversation with James D. Watson. Sci. Am. 288, 66–69 (2003)
- Waddington CH. The Strategy of the Genes; a Discussion of Some Aspects of Theoretical Biology. Allen & Unwin London (1957)
- Goldberg AD, Allis CD, Bernstein E. Epigenetics: a landscape takes shape. Cell. Feb 23;128(4):635-8. 2007
- Gilbert SF, Epel D. Ecological Developmental Biology. Sinaur Associates. Sunderland USA (2009)
- Waddington CH. Genetic assimilation of an acquired character. Evolution 7: 118-126. 1953
- Waddington CH. Principles of development and differentiation. Macmillan Company. New York USA (1966)
- Waddington CH. The Evolution of an Evolutionist. Edinburgh University Press. Edinburgh (1975)
- Jablonka E and Lamb MJ. Evolution in Four Dimensions: Genetic, Epigenetic, Behavioral, and Symbolic Variation in the History of Life. MIT Press. Cambridge MA (2005
Portions excerpted from Fundamentals of Generative Medicine copyright 2010, Drum Hill Publishing, USA.
You can read more of Dr. D'Adamo's blogs at: http://n-equals-one.com/blogs/
March: The GenoType Diet®
|It’s not only the luck of the genetic draw but what we do with it that makes the difference, and the GenoType Diet is a remarkable tool in making sure we get the best out of our genetic inheritance.
I first started following the Blood
Type Diet in 1984. At the time, I was a stressed-out magazine executive with a killer travel schedule, and I was looking to reduce stress and get more balance in my life. I was met with curious smiles when I asked the concierge at a hotel in Milan if they could make cabbage juice for me, and true to form, the Milanese made it glamorous and delicious! This inspired me to make sure that no matter what I was eating, that I should give consideration to what it was and how it was presented. A simple act, yet in itself, very nourishing.
The last 25+ years have been a culinary journey as well as a healing journey, as food became medicine and delicious. This was further enhanced when Peter was researching and writing the GenoType
Diet. Although I was very health conscious, in the back of my mind, I was always worried about the legacy of heart disease and atherosclerosis in my family, and I carried a secret fear that no matter what I did, along with my mother’s Irish eyes and skin, and my father’s Czech constitution and wit, I would inherit the health issues that claimed their lives.
With the GenoType Diet, I felt a new possibility to create a shift that would release me from this inheritance. I had the potential to re-wire these genetic fault lines and escape what I thought was a health certainty in my future. As an O/Hunter, I have a “reactive” worldview, which is inflammation-prone. For me, the best antidote is high quality proteins, very little grains, and vigorous exercise. I’ve been drawn to the martial arts, which has been a fantastic form of physical exercise, and which has helped to build strength and endurance.
I also pay close attention to stress and my reaction to it, as I feel that this is one of the greatest challenges I face. I try to get at least six hours of sleep a night, eat well, supplement with Catechol and my GenoType
Catalyst and Activator. And exercise, exercise, exercise!
These remarkably easy steps have changed my health outlook and hopefully will provide a longer and healthier life for me than my parents had. It’s not only the luck of the genetic draw but what we do with it that makes the difference, and the GenoType Diet is a remarkable tool in making sure we get the best out of our genetic inheritance.
|Making the Decision to Transition from Blood Type to GenoType
|"The Blood Type Diet® aligns the person
to the genes."
"The GenoType Diet® aligns the genes to the person."
Blood Type or GenoType? It
can be confusing – which is right for me? Dr. D’Adamo has come through
for us once again! He’s created a simple questionnaire to help
you to determine what’s right for you. There are sixteen “yes or
no” questions – you
just click on the appropriate button - it does all
the calculations for you and points you in the right
here to go to the questionnaire.
If you’ve made the decision to transition from
Type Diet® to the
GenoType Diet®, here are some tips
to get you started:
For the first three months, try to choose Super Foods exclusively.
If you are trying to lose weight, try to concentrate on the foods
with the diamond symbol next to them. This three month period is crucial
to detoxify your body and “re-set” your genes. At first, this may seem difficult – but here’s a little trick that might help – get a pack of index cards and write the Super Foods from each group on the index card. Separate your cards into piles for each food group (red meat, poultry, vegetables, fruits, grains, etc…), use your cards to create meals for each day, write them down and create a shopping list. Not only will you have the week’s
meals planned ahead, but you will have your shopping list ready to
go. If going cold-turkey is too difficult for you, try to eliminate
one toxin per week from your diet and add in as many Super Foods as
possible, it may take a little longer to make the transition, but at
least you are headed in the right direction.
After the first three months, you can begin to
re-introduce the foods in the “Toxins to Limit or Avoid” column that
are indicated with a black dot. These should be treated as occasional
neutrals. Of course, if you feel that you are starting to battle an illness,
or begin putting on weight, you might want to go back to avoiding these
foods for a while.
Foods that are unlisted should not be considered good or bad, they
are essentially neutral. The nutrients in them will benefit you, but
they won’t specifically
help you to restore balance to your genes or health to your cells.
The best part about this lifestyle is that it really does work – in addition
to countless stories of weight loss, we have had reports from people
who say that their allergies have cleared up; “The GenoType Diet® has
healed me of my wheat and dairy allergies!” exclaimed
one Nomad. Another Gatherer said that her seafood allergies were resolved
after six month on the GenoType Diet®.
As Dr. D’Adamo says, “Change your attitude, change your gene function.” Yes, it really is that simple. “If you look at it as the power to control your own genes – the
power to become the best YOU that you can be - the opportunity is limitless.”
And perhaps the easiest way to decide which diet system is right for you is again to listen to the words of the man himself:
"The Blood Type Diet® aligns the person to the genes."
"The GenoType Diet® aligns the genes to the person."
Spotlight: Lola Pliego
|My multiple systemic and inflammatory symptoms became a thing of the past, never to reoccur. At the same time my conviction and compliance has become a part of my individuality as if ingrained in me. When I noticed the immediate results on myself, all I wanted to do was to educate whomever asked me for help, so like me, they would reconsider their “one size fits all” approach to healthy eating.
This month we have an opportunity to meet Lola Pilego, who has been living right for her type since 1996. She started with the Blood Type Diet and has followed her individual path to SWAMI and beyond!
When did you begin following the Blood Type Diet?
Living in Miami in 1996, marked an important turn in my life. Dr. Peter D'Adamo's
Right 4 Your Type, first got my attention; in truth it shouted my name
while at a bookstore. Intuitively, I knew it was the answer to my quest for
proper nutrition, lifelong health, wellbeing and balance. I took it all in and
got myself hooked like a fish in water. I did the work, and I am still swimming!
What’s your blood type?
My blood type is O+. However, in reading Eat
Right 4 Your Type, a tiny sentence
on page 20 about other blood type identifiers apart from RH status, which mentioned
a status known as secretor/non secretor, caught my interest from the start.
I somehow knew there would be more coming and I was eager to learn more.
I loved the challenge set before me, as the walls of my 4-year nutrition science degree in the late 70s, at the University of Vienna, came tumbling down. Applying the basics given in the Eat
Right 4 Your Type book by avoiding the major avoids from the very first day, automatically made me thrive.
After reading Live
Right 4 Your Type years later, I found out my Lewis
Double Negative (LDN) status through
a serotyping panel, and was able to confirm my status as a non secretor through
What improvements in your health did you notice right away?
My multiple systemic and inflammatory symptoms became a thing of the past, never
to reoccur. At the same time my conviction and compliance has become a part of
my individuality as if ingrained in me. When I noticed the immediate results
on myself, all I wanted to do was to educate whomever asked me for help, so like
me, they would reconsider their “one size fits all” approach to healthy eating.
Everything fell into place once I adopted the principles in Eat
Right 4 Your Type.
Becoming a member of the very first message board at www.dadamo.com was
key, and I marveled at all of the priceless information being discussed related
to individuality and physiology. This opened a whole new world for me and piqued
Getting certified at the Institute for Human Individuality (IfHI) in 2003, was
an important step forward which gave me the basic tools I needed to educate and
help people find ways to take control over their health by relying on their blood
type uniqueness. I decided to make the Blood Type Diet my top priority, and have
been active and compliant, walking the walk and talking the talk, as they say,
ever since. I encouraged people back then to take a different path, embracing
lifestyle and wellness solutions with the help of the Blood Type Diet and Dr.
Library Series Books, as well as with the help of the Complete
Blood Type Encyclopedia protocols and online protocols.
When did you adopt the GenoType Diet?
Christmas 2008 - It gave me some new culinary options and felt like a very welcoming break from my strict type O non-secretor diet.
I further fine tuned my GenoType, by having my DNA
Genographic test done .
It was fascinating to find out so much more about my ancestral lineage.
My Mitochondrial and Y chromosome (through my brother) labeled me automatically a Hunter, and all the SWAMI report tweaks so far have been fabulous.
How has Dr. D’Adamo’s work changed your professional life?
I enjoy collaborating with my surgeon husband; giving Blood Type/GenoType lifestyle
advice to patients at the clinic; enhancing their surgical results and making
them feel good about themselves. ‘Happy Surgery’ is how he describes his work,
using minimally invasive techniques, wherever possible while obtaining subtle
anti-aging results. I provide full nutrition support in conjunction with lifestyle
changing tools, biometric markers, personalized medical history and a number
of other factors through SWAMI pro individualized diet reports created by Dr.
D'Adamo. He is practically omnipresent! It is a true blessing!
This approach has awakened people's curiosity and opens their mind about prevention
for everything health related, and the “one size does not fit all” approach becomes
clear to them, knowing about the unique factors and their genetics, which determine
their nutritional food plans, becoming more reliable than all the previous pill
popping they were accustomed to. This brings in other members of the family who
are looking for health alternatives, hoping to cure obsessive compulsive disorders
- anorexia among others - and who are working on the emotional aspects of food.
They start to understand the cause of their anxiety toward food and find they
can achieve a degree of peace they never thought possible. By implementing holistic
principles, avoiding low vibrational foods, which invariably spike their
insulin , and choosing instead those foods whose enzymes stay intact and are
individually right for each will help to guide them to a place of balance and
homeostasis. No more emotional roller coaster rides. Becoming their holistic
coach by spreading the word, educating and restoring their health, as well as
prevention, is what matters - and the willingness to share myself with others!
Giving them the tools to regain their health, and prevent disease, by choosing
potent foods and staying away from empty foods, adapting their menu plans and
recipes to fit what is available here, and teaching them about substituting beneficials
instead of avoids in those staple dishes dear to them. This approach helps them
break old habits for better healthy options, gives them a feeling of deep satisfaction
through sprouting, fermenting and other creative techniques, and provides quick
access to these compliant alternatives giving them the choice to pursue wellness.
GenoType Diet® Recipe: A Recipe for All GenoTypes
For more recipes, visit the Recipe
Center on www.genotypediet.com
The simple ingredient list and the basic cooking skills that are required will make this a recipe you prepare over and over again.
This recipe is not only delicious but it’s fast and easy to
make as well. The simple ingredient list and the basic cooking skills that
are required will make this a recipe you prepare over and over again.
Baked Cod with Garlic and Fennel
How to make it:
- 4 cod fillets
- 1 tablespoon fresh lemon juice
- 2 teaspoons olive oil
- 1 minced clove garlic
- 1/8 crushed teaspoon fennel seed
- Preheat the oven to 375° F. Combine the lemon juice, oil, garlic,
and fennel seeds in a small dish. Add the cod fillet and turn to coat.
- Bake for 8 to 10 minutes or until the fish is opaque in the center and flakes easily when touched with a fork.
Right For Your Type® News
GenoType Diet® Reviewed in the Huffington Post
Huffington Post blogger, Michael Boblett, extols the benefits of eating right
for your GenoType, saying that he "never counts calories" and
been ill since he began following the diet. Read
his blog here and see if you agree!
IfHI 2011 Conference & Certification: Registration Continues
Dr. Peter J. D'Adamo and the faculty of The Institute for Human Individuality
(IfHI) will hold the 2011 IfHI Conference & Certification May 20-22
at The Dolce Conference Center located in Norwalk, Connecticut.
For information, call: (203) 761-6701 or email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Download the registration form: 2011
IfHI Registration Form.
Download the IfHI Brochure: 2011
Seating is limited so make your reservations today.
Blood Type Diet® iPhone App Gets
|"Awesome! Thank you so
much. Yesterday I gave feedback that it would be great if non secretor
status was included in the application. Today, very much to my surprise,
I received an update with just that. Now I can have it with me everywhere
I go. So far, Eat Right For YourType® has been
making a big difference in the way I feel. The more I follow the
plan, the better I feel." - John Z.
|"Very useful app! Changing my life!"
FREE Upgrade for Current Users of The Blood Type Diet® iPhone App
(English language version). The Blood Type Diet® iPhone App has been
expanded with more blood type information and enhanced integration with
the web including:
New Share feature allows posts to Facebook, Twitter, and via e-mail.
- Blood Type Profile for Secretors and Non-Secretors
- What Makes You Unique
- Personality Profiles
- Managing Your Stress Levels
- How to Live Right
- Plus by popular demand, web access to tasty recipes individualized for
you and your family.
Available for $3.99 through Apple iTunes
(Similar enhancements for Spanish, Portuguese, and French language versions
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